Comitati di Liberazione Nazionale
- National Liberation Committees(CLN)On 9 September 1943, representatives of the major antifascist parties formed a clandestine Committee of National Liberation in Rome. Regional and local committees were formed subsequently; in northern Italy, a separate committee, the CLN-Alta Italia, operating secretly in Milan, was formed. The Partito d’Azione/Action Party (PdA), the Democrazia Cristiana/Christian Democracy (DC), the Partito Liberale Italiano/ Italian Liberal Party (PLI), the followers of Ivanoe Bonomi, and the two Marxist parties, the Partito Socialista Italiano/Italian Socialist Party (PSI) and the Partito Comunista Italiano/Italian Communist Party (PCI), despite their strong ideological disputes, agreed to make national liberation their primary objective. The PCI emphasized this priority. When Palmiro Togliatti returned from the USSR (in spring 1944), he insisted—in the svolta di Salerno (the Salerno about-turn)—on postponing political questions until after the war. In the meantime, his party was ready to cooperate with and even take part in a transitional government under Pietro Badoglio. Defeating the forces of Germany and their Fascist allies was what mattered most.In June 1944, the king, without abdicating, turned over his powers to Crown Prince Humbert, styling him Lieutenant-General of the Realm. Badoglio resigned, and Ivanoe Bonomi formed a provisional government of all six CLN parties in liberated Rome. The CLN and the CLN-AI continued with the task of organizing and authorizing partisan activity against the Germans and Benito Mussolini’s followers.See also Resistance.
Historical Dictionary of Modern Italy. Mark F. Gilbert & K. Robert Nilsson. 2007.
Look at other dictionaries:
Acronyms and Abbreviations — ACI Azione Cattolica Italiana (Catholic Action) AGCI Associazione Generale delle Cooperative Italiane (General Association of Italian Cooperatives) AGIP Azienda Generale Italiana Petroli (Italian General Petroleum Agency) AN Alleanza Nazionale… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
Fascism — Contemporary Italian history is dominated by the Fascist ventennio (20 year period), when Benito Mussolini led a dictatorship characterized by single party rule, a pervasive, would be totalitarian state, a cult of violence and war, and… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
Amendola, Giorgio — (1907–1980) The son of Giovanni Amendola, he enrolled in the Partito Comunista Italiano/Italian Communist Party (PCI) in his native Naplesin 1929. Two years later, he embarked secretly for Paris to participate in the organizational work of the … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
Constituent Assembly — When World War II ended, the form of government and the role of the monarchy itself were major issues to be decided by the Italian people. After a lengthy delay during which Italy was governed by provisional governments headed by Ferruccio… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
Cooperatives — Italian cooperatives trace their origins to the Mutual Aid Societies formed by rural workers seeking unity of action to get the highest prices for the labor they sold and lower prices for what they bought. By 1886, the Lega delle Cooperative… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
La Malfa, Ugo — (1903–1979) One of Italy’s most honest and talented postwar leaders, the Palermo born Ugo La Malfa was an ex ponent of a socially humane brand of liberal capitalism that found few adherents in postwar Italy. As a student, he distinguished… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
Partito Repubblicano Italiano — Italian Republican Party (PRI) Officially founded in April 1895 (though the party’s roots can be traced back to Giuseppe Mazzini and the various political movements that he inspired), the PRI was little more than a parliamentary fringe group… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
Resistance — The collapse of Benito Mussolini’s regime and the subsequent German invasion of Italy led Italy’s antifascist forces to organize partisan activity (sabotage, ambushes, and attacks on Fascist sympathizers) throughout occupied Italy. Initially,… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
Trade Unions — The prefascist trade unions, whether of Catholic or Marxist inspiration, were equally the targets of systematic violence at the hands of Fascist action squads, then of outright prohibition. During the resistance, however, the Comitati di… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy
World War II — (1940–1945) Italy entered the war on 10 June 1940, by launching a surprise attack on France. Within a month, Italian forces attacked France’s British ally in the Sudan and Kenya from garrisons in Ethiopia. By mid August 1940, British… … Historical Dictionary of modern Italy